[an error occurred while processing this directive] [an error occurred while processing this directive] Doug Jones's FOCAL Index [an error occurred while processing this directive] [an error occurred while processing this directive] [an error occurred while processing this directive]
[an error occurred while processing this directive] (none)
   [an error occurred while processing this directive]

FOCAL

[an error occurred while processing this directive]

(none)

[an error occurred while processing this directive] Part of [an error occurred while processing this directive] the PDP-8 Collection
[an error occurred while processing this directive] See also [an error occurred while processing this directive] (none)
[an error occurred while processing this directive] [an error occurred while processing this directive] (none) Douglas W. Jones [an error occurred while processing this directive] (none)
[an error occurred while processing this directive] (none)
THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA Department of Computer Science [an error occurred while processing this directive] and (none) [an error occurred while processing this directive]

(none) [an error occurred while processing this directive]

Copyright © (none) This work may be transmitted or stored in electronic form on any computer attached to the Internet or World Wide Web so long as this notice is included in the copy. Individuals may make single copies for their own use. All other rights are reserved.

[an error occurred while processing this directive]
[an error occurred while processing this directive]

The FOCAL programming language was widely used on the PDP-8 from its public release in 1969 onward. The two FOCAL manuals listed here are almost a decade apart, so they clearly demonstrate the evolution of this language. They also give some idea of who was using the language and what they did with it.

FOCAL 1969
An HTML transcription of the original FOCAL 1969 promotional flyer.

UW FOCAL
An Adobe PDF scan of the DECUS documentation, rescued from obscurity by Jim Butch.

DECUS NO.   FOCAL8-301 & 12-216
TITLE U/W FOCAL
AUTHOR Jim van Zee
COMPANY University of Washington
DATE August 1978
SOURCE LANGUAGE PAL-8/PAL-III